OROBANCHACEAE - BROOMRAPES FAMILY
Herbaceous root-parasites devoid of chlorophyll. Stem erect, often bulbous at base. Leaves scale-like, often imbricate at base of stem. Flowers solitary or in terminal bracteate spikes or racemes, hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, hypogynous. Calyx cylindrical or campanulate below, 2−5-dentate, rarely truncate or cleft into two lateral halves. Corolla cylindrical, bilabiate, rarely ± 5-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous, dorsifixed. Ovary superior, 1-celled with numerous ovules on usually 4 parietal placentae; style single with a 2-lobed or nearly entire stigma. Fruit a 2-valved capsule; seeds very small and numerous.
Davis PH (1982). Orobanchaceae, In: Davis PH (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 7: 1.
The “broomrapes family” contains parasitic annual herbs or perennial herbs or shrubs in almost worldwide. All species (except Lindenbergia Lehm. ex Link & Otto ve Rehmannia Libosch. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) are fully or partly parasitic on the roots of other plants. The fully parasitic species lack chlorophyll and therefore cannot perform photosynthesis. Flowers may be yellowish, brownish, purplish, or white colors. Some species of this family give great economic damage to planted species. They often parasitize cereal crops like sugarcane, maize, millet, sorghum, and other major agricultural crops like cowpea, sunflower, hemp, tomatoes, and legumes. Because of the ubiquitous nature of these particular parasites in developing countries, it is estimated to affect the livelihood of over 100 million people killing 20 to 100 percent of crops depending on infestation.
Anonymous 1 (2016). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orobanchaceae/, Accessed date: 03.03.2016.
Anonymous 2 (2016). http://www.wildflowers-and-weeds.com/Plant_Families/Orobanchaceae.htm/, Accessed date: 03.03.2016.
Anonymous 3 (2016). http://www.first-nature.com/flowers/~orobanchaceae.php/, Accessed date: 03.03.2016.