Scientific Description:

Perennial, monocarpic or annual herbs, often with thickened rhizomes or roots and with milky juice. Leaves alternate, exstipulate. Flowers hermaphrodite, epigynous, actinomorphic, usually protandrous, rarely ± cleistogamous. Inflorescence 1-many-flowered, spicate, racemiform or paniculate, flowers often solitary, axillary or terminal. Calyx-tube adnate to ovary. Calyx 5, 8, 9 or 10-lobed, with or without appendages between lobes. Corolla gamopetalous, usually blue or lilac, rarely whitish, 5, 8, 9 or 10-lobed, rarely divided nearly to base, usually campanulate, infundibular, cylindrical, or rotate. Ovary inferior, (2−), 3−or 5−locular. Ovules numerous. Stamens 5. Filaments free, usually broadened and ciliate at base. Anthers free, or ± connate forming a tube. Style usually elongate, usually hairy and with 2−, 3−, or 5−fid stigma. Fruit a capsule, erect or nodding, dehiscing by 2, 3 or 5 basal, lateral (median) or ± apical pores or valves, or rarely irregularly splitting up. Seeds numerous, small, usually shiny.



Davis PH (1978). Campanulaceae, In: Davis PH (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 6: 2.

Public Description:

Bellflower family” contains herbaceous plants, shrubs, and rarely small trees, and is almost cosmopolitan but concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere. However in the Southern Hemisphere, South Africa is remarkably rich in members of this family. Many cultivated varieties are grown in gardens for their large showy colorful flowers, which are usually blue, purple, red or yellow. Many species produce chemical compounds in wide variety. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, but others have been used to treat asthma and other breathing disorders. The best known compound is “lobeline”, a mild narcotic which provides calming effect of nicotine, but which does not appear to be addictive. As such, there is a potential to be used as an adjunct to quit smoking. However, the sale of this material is being newly organized in many countries.



Anonymous 1 (2017)., Accessed date: 10.04.2017.

Anonymous 2 (2015)., Accessed date: 29.12.2015.

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