Scientific Description:

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely shrublets or trees. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, simple, often with marked setose indumentum. Ultimate branches of inflorescence cymose, cymes scorpioid or ± circinnate (cincinni), or inflorescence rarely thyrsoid. Calyx gamosepalous, 5-lobed (rarely 9-lobed or irregularly dentate), often accrescent after anthesis. Corolla 5-lobed, actinomorphic or rarely zygomorphic, usually with distinct tube and ± deeply lobed limb; throat often with 5 appendages or tufts or a zone of hairs, or smooth and glabrous. Stamens 5, epipetalous, alternating with corolla lobes. Ovary superior, 4-(rarely 2) locular; style gynobasic, more rarely terminal, usually undivided, stigma entire or 2(−4)-lobed. Fruit usually of 4 nutlets, rarely fewer by abortion or fusion, or of 2 corky mericarps, or a drupe; nutlets borne on flat to pyramidal gynobase, attachment scar narrow to broad, without or with a sub-basal ring or stalk, with erect to subhorizontally incurved beak or unbeaked, keeled or not, often differentiated into disc and margin; margin sometimes prolonged into a spreading or incurved wing, or spiny-glochidiate; surface smooth or variously ornamented, glabrous, hairy or with glochidiate tubercles and/or spines.



Davis PH (1978). Boraginaceae, In: Davis PH (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 6: 237.

Public Description:

The borage” or “forget-me-not family”, includes a variety of shrubs, trees, and herbs, and found in worldwide. The family includes a number of garden ornamentals. Most members of this family have rough course hairy leaves because they carry silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate. These hairs can induce skin reactions such as itching and redness. Color pigments in some species cause the flower to change from red to blue with age. This is may be a signal to pollinators that a flower is old and depleted of pollen and nectar. Also, some species contain minute amounts of poisonous alkaloids, making them toxic with sustained use.



Anonymous 1 (2015)., Accessed date: 22.12.2015.

Anonymous 2 (2015)., Accessed date: 22.12.2015.

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