RANUNCULUSL. - BUTTERCUP
Annual or perennial, caulescent, often acrid herbs, terrestrial or aquatic. Flowers ± panicled or solitary, yellow, red or white. Leaves alternate, often mainly radical. Perianth biseriate, outer segments sepaloid (sepals), inner petaloid (petals). Sepals usually 3 or 5, usually deciduous in fruit. Petals usually 5 or more, bearing a nectar-pit towards the base often protected by a scale. Stamens usually numerous. Carpels few to many. Achenes few to many, usually with a persistent, glabrous style (beak).
Davis PH (1965). Ranunculus L., In: Davis PH (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1: 146.
Ranunculus, commonly known as “buttercup” or “crowfoot”, are herbaceous perennials and annuals. They are found mostly in temperate and cold regions and on tropical mountains. The genus name "Ranunculus" means "little frog" in Latin. This probably refers to many species being found near water, like frogs. There are approximately 413 species in the world and 85 species (114 taxa) in Türkiye. All buttercups contain toxic glycosides. In large quantities, these compounds will cause salivation, as well as inflammation of the mouth and abdominal pains with convulsions usually proceeding death. As an example, the juice of the leaves of the common field buttercup is poisonous, and may cause blisters on sensitive skin, but has been used as an application to remove warts. In some Ranunculus species, "protoanemonin" and "anemonin" substances have been used in Asian traditional medicines for feverish diseases, rheumatism and rubefacient.
Anonymous 1 (2016). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranunculus/, Accessed date: 05.05.2016.
Anonymous 2 (2016). http://montana.plant-life.org/genera/Ranunculus.htm/, Accessed date: 05.05.2016.
Anonymous 3 (2016). http://www.theplantlist.org/1.1/browse/A/Ranunculaceae/Ranunculus/, Accessed date: 05.05.2016.
Anonymous 4 (2016). https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/search/?q=ranunculus/, Accessed date: 05.05.2016.
Doğan Güner E (2012). Ranunculus L., In: Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M. & Babaç, M.T. (eds.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını. İstanbul, pp. 780−786.