Scientific Description:

Annuals. Leaves laciniate. Flowers borne in racemes or panicles, zygomorphic. Perianth 2-seriate; outer segments (sepals) 5, petaloid, the posterior spurred; inner segments (corolla) petaloid, gamopetalous, 3−5-lobed or subentire, bearing a single nectariferous spur hidden within the sepal spur. Stamens in 5 spiralled series. Follicles solitary.



Davis PH (1965). Consalida (DC.) S.F. Gray, In: Davis PH (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1: 119.

Public Description:

Consolida, commonly known as “knight’s-spur”, is native to Western Europe, the Mediterranean and Asia. There are approximately 52 species in the world and 28 species (34 taxa) in Türkiye. This genus of single annual flowering plants has blue, purple, pink or white flowers, feathered leaves and poisonous seeds. Consolida is the botanical name because these plants were used in the Middle Ages to help consolidate (i.e., clot) blood. It has frequently been used medicinally as an agent for the destruction of human parasites such as lice and mites. In fact, they are deadly to livestock.



Anonymous 1 (2016).,Accessed date: 04.05.2016.

Anonymous 2 (2016). / ,Accessed date: 04.05.2016.

Anonymous 3 (2016). /,Accessed date: 04.05.2016.

Anonymous 4 (2016). /,Accessed date: 04.05.2016

Ertuğrul K (2012). Consolida (DC.) S.F. Gray, In: Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M. & Babaç, M.T. (eds.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını. İstanbul, pp. 774−776.

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