SCROPHULARIACEAE - FIGWORT FAMILY
Annual to perennial herbs, subshrubs, shrubs or trees; sometimes xerophytic or rarely aquatics (e.g. LimosellaL.). Leaves simple, opposite, alternate (spiral) or whorled; margins entire or toothed; petioles present or absent;stipules absent, sometimes present in Buddlejeae. Inflorescences usually axillary solitary flowers, racemes, cymes,spikes or thyrses; sometimes bracteate. Flowers bisexual or rarely unisexual (plants functionally dioecious), usuallyzygomorphic. Sepals free or fused, often unequal. Petals fused, 2-lipped. often tubular. Stamen often unequal with2 long and 2 short, sometimes equal (e.g. BuddlejaL.), rarely 5, usually filaments attached to the petals;anthers introrse; sometimes staminodes 5. Ovary superior, often nectary disk at base; carpels fused, usually 2,sometimes 4 in some Buddleja; locules (1-)2(-4); ovules 1-many per locule; placentation axile or less often apicalor parietal. Fruit a septicidal or loculicidal capsule, schizocarp (with 2 achenes) or rarely a berry (DermatobotrysBolus,NicodemiaTen.,TeediaRudolphi,LeucocarpusD.Don) or drupe (e.g. many Myoporeae, OftiaAdans.).
Byng JW (2014). Scrophulariaceae, In: The Flowering Plants Handbook: A practical guide to families and genera of the world. Plant Gateway Ltd., Hertford, UK., pp. 464.
Scrophulariaceae, commonly known as”figwort family”, consists of annual orperennial herbs, and rarely shrubs, and has a cosmopolitan distribution. However, the diversity in temperate regions, including tropical mountains, is highest level.It does not contain economically important crop plants, but it contains important garden ornamental plants such as “butterfly bush (BuddlejaL.)”, “twinspur (Diascia Link & Otto)”, “nemesia (Nemesia Vent.)”, and many others.
Anonymous 1 (2016). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrophulariaceae /,Accessed date: 11.09.2016.
Anonymous 2 (2018).https://www.britannica.com/plant/Scrophulariaceae/,Accessed date: 24.02.2018.