RUBIACEAE - MADDER FAMILY
Woody to herbaceous perennials or annuals. Leaves opposite, entire, stipulate; stipules interpetiolar and ± fused or more often leaf-like and forming whorls of 4 to 10 (or more) 'leaves'. Inflorescence usually thyrsoid, bracteate or not, lax to contracted, subspicate or subcapitate. Flowers mostly hermaphrodite, more rarely unisexual and monoecious or dioecious, actinomorphic, usually 4−5-merous. Sepals mostly free, sometimes reduced. Corolla gamopetalous, hypocrateriform, infundibular, campanulate or rotate, tube short to very long, lobes contorted, imbricate or valvate. Stamens epipetalous, alternating with corolla lobes. Ovary inferior, often only 2-locular, each cell with 1-many ovules. Fruit a capsule, berry or drupe, or separating into 2 mericarps.
Davis PH (1982). Rubiaceae, In: Davis PH (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 7: 722.
Rubiaceae, commonly known as “madder family”, “coffee family” or “bedstraw family”, consists of herbs,shrubs, trees andlianas, and has a cosmopolitan distribution.However, the largest species diversity is concentrated in the subtropics.This family, which is economically important, includes Coffea L., the source of “coffee”, Cinchona L., the source of “quinine” used to treat “malaria”, some dye plants (Rubia L.), and ornamental cultivars, e.g. gardenia (Gardenia J.Ellis), ixora (Ixora L.), pentas (Pentas Benth.). The leaves of the Kratom plant (Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil.) contain a variety of alkaloids, which havepainkilling and stimulant qualities. It is used in traditional folk medicine in Southeast Asia. However, sufficient clinical studies have not been conducted on side effects.
Anonymous 1 (2016).https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubiaceae/,Accessed date: 30.06.2016.
Anonymous 2 (2016).https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/search/?q=rubiaceae./Accessed date: 30.06.2016