POLYPODIACEAE - POLYPODY FAMILY
Mostly epiphytic and epipetric, a few terrestrial;pantropical. Rhizomes long-creeping to shortcreeping,dictyostelic, bearing scales; petioles clearlyabscising near their bases or not (most grammitids), leavingshort phyllopodia; blades monomorphic or dimorphic,mostly simple to pinnatifid or 1-pinnate (uncommonlymore divided); indument lacking or of hairs and/or scales on the blade; veins often anastomosing or reticulate,sometimes with included veinlets, or veins free(most grammitids); indument various, of scales, hairs, orglands; sori abaxial (rarely marginal), round to oblong orelliptic, occasionally elongate, or the sporangia acrostichoid,sometimes deeply embedded; sori exindusiate,sometimes covered by caducous scales when young (e.g., Lepisorus (J.Sm.) Ching, Pleopeltis Humb. & Bonp.);sporangia with 1–3-rowed, usuallylong stalks, frequently with paraphyses on sporangiaor on receptacle; spores hyaline to yellowish, reniform,and monolete (non-grammitids), or greenish and globose-tetrahedral, trilete (most grammitids); perine various,usually thin, not strongly winged or cristate.
Smith AR & all. (2006). Polypodiaceae, In: A classification for extant ferns, Taxon 55(3): 719.
“Polypody family” or “fern family” is often composed of epiphytes or rarely terrestrial ferns.This family is grown in rainy climates and mostly rain forests. Although they have vascular systems as seen in flowering plants, they produce spores instead of seeds to reproduce. The lower surfaces of the leaves bear round or oblong clusters of sporangia (sori) that usually lack the protective membranous covering (indusium) found in many other fern families. Economically, the family is of little importance except for the few grown as ornamentals.
Anonymous 1 (2018). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypodiaceae, Accessed date: 06.02.2018.
Anonymous 2 (2018). https://www.britannica.com/plant/Polypodiaceae,Accessed date: 06.02.2018.
Anonymous 3 (2018). https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/search/?q=+POLYPODIACEAE+,Accessed date: 06.02.2018.