Scientific Description:

Annual and perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, simple and dentate or deeply dissected. Inflorescence a spike, terminal on stem and branches. Calyx cylindrical, distinctly and unequally 5-dentate, rarely 4-dentate. Corolla infundibular, tube ± pilose within, limb 5-lobed, feebly to distinctly bilabiate. Stamens included. Ovary 4-locular, each cell 1-ovulate. Style slender but rather short, shortly 2-lobed above with one lobe stigmatose. Fruit dry, of 4 pyrenes separating at maturity.



Townsend CC (1982). Verbena L., In: Davis PH (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 7: 33.

Public Description:

Verbena, is a genus of annual or perennial herbaceous or semi-woody plants, commonly known as “vervain”. The majority of the species are native to the Asia and America. There are approximately 101 species in the world and 2 species (3 taxa) in Türkiye. Some species, hybrids and cultivars of vervains are used as ornamental plants. Verbena officinalis L. (European vervain) is also grown as a honey plant or used to set up a butterfly garden. The vervain has longstanding use in herbalism and folk medicine, usually as an herbal tea.



Anonymous 1 (2016) date: 24.11.2016.

Anonymous 2 (2016) date: 24.11.2016.

Anonymous 3 (2016) date: 24.11.2016.

Ekim T (2012) Verbena L., In: Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M. & Babaç, M.T. (eds.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını. İstanbul, pp. 882.

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